Spray carbaryl 50 WP 2 kg + wettable sulphur 2 kg or endosulfan 35 EC 1.5 L or malathion 50 EC 1.5 L. Scientific / Botanical Name of Eggplant. Solanum melongena is grown worldwide for its edible fruit.. Study on the phytophagous mites and their … Little leaf of brinjal is known to cause heavy economic losses in India. They are steamed, stir-fried, or pan-fried and eaten as banchan (side dishes), such as namul, bokkeum, and jeon. In 2007-08, 34 million kg worth of Rs. M. subfasciatus: Brown; M. discolor: Brown and white spots M. viridanus: Small light green weevil, Apply lindane 1.3 D before planting @ 25 kg/ha. Eggplant is widely used in its native India, for example in sambar (a tamarind lentil stew), dalma (a dal preparation with vegetables, native to Odisha), chutney, curry, and achaar (a pickled dish). Crop: Brinjal. 19 million was exported mainly to UK, Netherland, Saudi Arabia and Middle East countries (DGCIS, 2008) 2. In the La Mancha region of central Spain, a small eggplant is pickled in vinegar, paprika, olive oil, and red peppers. Brinjal, Eggplant, Solanum melongeana L. Stock Photography - Fotosearch Enhanced. [16], Because of the plant's relationship with various other nightshades, the fruit was at one time believed to be extremely poisonous. Rinsing, draining, and salting the sliced fruit before cooking may remove the bitterness. In Iranian cuisine, it is blended with whey as kashk e bademjan, tomatoes as mirza ghassemi, or made into stew as khoresht-e-bademjan. An English botany book in 1597 described the madde or raging Apple: This plant groweth in Egypt almost everywhere... bringing foorth fruite of the bignes of a great Cucumber.... We have had the same in our London gardens, where it hath borne flowers, but the winter approching before the time of ripening, it perished: notwithstanding it came to beare fruite of the bignes of a goose egge one extraordinarie temperate yeere... but never to the full ripenesse. S. violaceum of de Candolle applies to Linnaeus' S. aethiopicum. 17.53 mites/ leaf with least spider mite population on brinjal varieties JBGR- 1 (4.73 mites/ leaf). Female P. operculella use the leaves to lay their eggs and the hatched larvae will eat away at the mesophyll of the leaf. [48] Another popular dish is adobong talong, which is diced eggplant prepared with vinegar, soy sauce, and garlic as an adobo. Always avoid over-mature, old-stock, and sunken eggplants as they tastebitter and, therefore, unappetizing. The Dravidian word was borrowed into the Indic languages, giving ancient forms such as Sanskrit and Pali vātiṅ-gaṇa (alongside Sanskrit vātigama) and Prakrit vāiṃaṇa. Mulching helps conserve moisture and prevent weeds and fungal diseases and the plants benefit from some shade during the hottest part of the day. The life cycle is completed in 20-25 days. [46][47] Eggplant can also be grilled, skinned and eaten as a salad called ensaladang talong. Botanically classified as a berry, the fruit contains numerous small, soft, edible seeds that taste bitter because they contain or are covered in nicotinoid alkaloids, like the related tobacco. The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S. ovigerum and S. trongum. It can be sliced and deep-fried, then served with plain yogurt (optionally topped with a tomato and garlic sauce), such as in the Turkish dish patlıcan kızartması (meaning fried aubergines), or without yogurt, as in patlıcan şakşuka. Eggplant is the egg-shaped glossy black fruit with white flesh and a meaty texture. Bicolored cultivars with striping include 'Listada de Gandia' and 'Udumalapet'. [32] This decision was deemed controversial, as it deviated from previous practices with other genetically modified crops in India. S. melongena is included on a list of low flammability plants, indicating that it is suitable for growing within a building protection zone. Tsao and Lo in "Vegetables: Types and Biology". Its numerous seeds are small, soft and edible, along with the rest of the fruit, and do not have to be removed. Eggplants can also be battered before deep-frying and served with a sauce made of tahini and tamarind. The Greek loans took a variety of forms, but crucially they began with m-, partly because Greek lacked the initial b- sound and partly through folk-etymological association with the Greek word μέλας (melas), 'black'. U.S. Department of Agriculture Cooperative Economic Institute Report, 18:1080. In some cases the 1Senior Scientific officer, 2Chief Scientific Officr (In-charge), 3,4&5Scientific Officer, ... population abundance of red spider mite in brinjal, cucumber, snake gourd, teasle Sometimes fried tomatoes and deep-fried potatoes are also added, creating a dish called begun bhorta. 12 (4), 259-268. [20][21][22] Similar names are widespread in other languages, such as the Icelandic term eggaldin or the Welsh planhigyn ŵy. Several species of thrips transmit tospoviruses. Brinjal is the name of a fruit belonging to the Solanales order and the Solanum genus. Brinjal definition: a tropical Old World solanaceous plant, Solanum melongena, widely cultivated for its... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Sombatsiri K, 1978. As a member of the genus Solanum, it is related to the tomato, chili pepper, and potato, although they are new world and the eggplant, like nightshade, is old world. Eggplant is nutritionally low in macronutrient and micronutrient content, but the capability of the fruit to absorb oils and flavors into its flesh through cooking expands its use in the culinary arts. Eggplants are available fresh all around the season. Eggplant is used in the cuisines of many countries. Below is a listing of several common insects by both their name and by their assigned scientific name. [51][52] Seeds are typically started eight to 10 weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free date. Brinjal scientific name is Solanum Melongena and hails from Solanaceae family. #shorts #YouTubeshort #short #shortvideo Biology students bataye baingan scientific name | brinjal botanical name | baingan ka vagyanic naam As the name indicates, symptoms of the disease include shortening of the petioles and production of leaves which are much smaller in size. However, since eggplants can be particularly susceptible to pests such as whiteflies, they are sometimes grown with slightly less susceptible plants, such as chili pepper, as a sacrificial trap crop. A 2008 study of a sample of 741 people in India, where eggplant is commonly consumed, found nearly 10% reported some allergic symptoms after consuming eggplant, with 1.4% showing symptoms within two hours. Brinjal is also exported in the fresh or frozen form. ... scientific names of the insect and mite pest species. 1. The cut surface of the flesh rapidly turns brown when the fruit is cut open (oxidation). The Hobson-Jobson dictionary comments that 'probably there is no word of the kind which has undergone such extraordinary variety of modifications, whilst retaining the same meaning, as this'.[27]. Some common cultivars have fruit that is egg-shaped, glossy, and purple with white flesh and a spongy, "meaty" texture. Preferred Scientific Name. Names for various eggplant types, such as agreste, album, divaricatum, esculentum, giganteum, globosi, inerme, insanum, leucoum, luteum, multifidum, oblongo-cylindricum, ovigera, racemiflorum, racemosum, ruber, rumphii, sinuatorepandum, stenoleucum, subrepandum, tongdongense, variegatum, violaceum, viride, are not considered to refer to anything more than cultivar groups at best. Parmigiana di melanzane, eggplant parmesan. What is Brinjal? Names of the two-spotted spider mite and the carmine spider mite to be redesignated. Solanum melongena L. Preferred Common Name. Eggplant in Indian Languages. Ash weevils: Myllocerus subfasciatus, M. discolor, M. viridanus, M. maculosus (Curculionidae: Coleoptera). In tropical and subtropical climates, eggplant can be sown in the garden. Semiwild types can grow much larger, to 225 cm (7 ft 5 in), with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) broad. In a dish from Maharashtra called bharli vangi, small brinjals are stuffed with ground coconut, peanuts, onions, tamarind, jaggery and masala spices, and then cooked in oil. All spider mites spin fine strands of webbing on the host plant — hence their name. brownii. TAXONOMY AND GEOGRAPHIC ORIGIN 2.1 Taxonomy Brinjal belongs to the family Solanaceae and is known under the botanical name Solanum melongena L. It is frequently, but not always, cooked with fat. Notching of leaf margins by adults.  Grubs feeds on roots resulting in wilting and death of plants. Smith FF; Baker EW, 1968. According to the entry brinjal in the Oxford English Dictionary, the Sanskrit word vātin-gāna denoted 'the class (that removes) the wind-disorder (windy humour)': that is, vātin-gāna came to be the name for eggplants because they were thought to cure flatulence. However, Solanum incanum and cockroach berry (S. capsicoides), other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni, respectively, were occasionally considered eggplant varieties, but this is not correct. Also known as anglophone, aubergine, brinjal, or in the Philippines “talong”, it is a plantunder the nightshade family Solanaceae. Elsewhere in China, such as in Yunnan cuisine (in particular the cuisine of the Dai people) they are barbecued or roasted, then split and either eaten directly with garlic, chilli, oil and coriander, or the flesh is removed and pounded to a mash (typically with a wooden pestle and mortar) before being eaten with rice or other dishes. Eggplant, Auberigine, Brinjal. From Arabic, the word was borrowed into European languages. anushka7679 anushka7679 24.07.2020 Biology Primary School Give the scientific name of brinjal. Take a close look at the stalk; if it is stout, firm, and green; that means the fruit is fresh. Modern descendants of this ancient Dravidian word include Malayalam vaṟutina and Tamil vaṟutuṇai. Attested Greek forms include ματιζάνιον (matizanion, eleventh-century), μελιντζάνα (melintzana, fourteenth-century), and μελιντζάνιον (melintzanion, seventeenth-century). 19 Malay name: Terong manis (sweet brinjal), terong china (Chinese brinjal), terong ungu (purple brinjal), terong rapoh, terong puteh (white brinjal), terong biru (blue brinjal), terong hijau (green brinjal). 2 Korean and Japanese eggplant varieties are typically thin-skinned.[38]. Spider mites are two-spotted arachnids that change color from pale green to orange or red when the weather becomes cold. Scopoli's S. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant, and that of Blanco to S. Image from: Medical News Today. 02 Insect and Mite Pests Diversity in the Important Vegetable crops Ecos stems In Ban ladesh j Table 1. In the markets, varieties of eggplants varying in size, shape, and color put for sale. They are often deep fried and made into dishes such as yúxiāng-qiézi ("fish fragrance eggplant")[39] or di sān xiān ("three earthen treasures"). However, the green part at the top, the calyx, does have to be removed when preparing an eggplant for cooking. Owing to its versatile nature and wide use in both everyday and festive Indian food, it is often described as the "king of vegetables". Translated into English as 'mad-apple', 'rage-apple', or 'raging apple', this name for eggplants is attested from 1578 and the form 'mad-apple' may still be found in Southern American English. Populations usually decline as temperatures warm in spring. After hatching from the egg, the first immature stage (larva) has three pair of l… Roasted, skinned, mashed, mixed with onions, tomatoes, and spices, and then slow cooked gives the South Asian dish baingan bharta or gojju, similar to salată de vinete in Romania. Click here to get an answer to your question ️ Give the scientific name of brinjal. It was originally domesticated from the wild nightshade species thorn or bitter apple, S. incanum,[6][7][8] probably with two independent domestications: one in South Asia, and one in East Asia. Also, this word is colloquially used in the Indian sub-continent. Like the tomato, its skin and seeds can be eaten, but, like the potato, it is usually eaten cooked. Some of my readers from the UK will probably want to … A cut open brinjal fruit showing the nature of damage by the brinjal shoot and fruit borer, A country bean pod damaged by the flower and pod borer, A' pani kachu' (low land taro) leaf damaged by the common cutworm. Shoot and Fruit borer . Bryobinae Berlese Bryobini Reck Hystrichonychini Pritchard & Baker Petrobiini Reck Tetranychinae Berlese Tenuipalpoidini Pritchard & Baker Tetranychini Reck Spider mites are members of the Acari family Tetranychidae, which includes about 1,200 species. Penne with eggplant and basil in yogurt-tomato sauce. Scientific name . Carmine spider mite, a close relative of the twospotted spider mite, is bright red in color. Some cultivars have a color gradient—white at the stem, to bright pink, deep purple or even black. Solanum ovigerum Dunal [9] In 2018, China and India combined accounted for 87% of the world production of eggplants. The eggplant was sometimes considered a variety violaceum of that species. Many eggplant dishes are sauces made by mashing the cooked fruit. Slim cultivars in purple-black skin include 'Little Fingers', 'Ichiban', 'Pingtung Long', and 'Tycoon', In green skin, 'Louisiana Long Green' and 'Thai (Long) Green'. Variant names Common name: Brinjal, eggplant. Among the arthropod pests of brinjal, the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus Channabasavanna is the main threat next to shoot and fruit borer (Basu and Pramanik, 1968). 10. A mix of roasted eggplant, roasted red peppers, chopped onions, tomatoes, mushrooms, carrots, celery, and spices is called zacuscă in Romania, and ajvar or pinjur in the Balkans. Mites damage the outer cells of the leaf as they feed on the plant sap. The term brinjal is less common that is heard in countries like India. Capsicum broad mite. * According to FAO in 2012, China ranks first in the production of brinjal (58% of world output) and India ranks second(25%), contributing 13557.8 million tonnes to the world production. 4. These forms also gave rise to the Caribbean English melongene. Several other names that are now invalid have been uniquely applied to it:[64], A number of subspecies and varieties have been named, mainly by Dikii, Dunal, and (invalidly) by Sweet. Solanum trongum Poir. k16455315 Fotosearch Stock Photography and Stock Footage helps you find the perfect photo or footage, fast! It remains in scientific use. The plant species is believed to have originated in India, where it continues to grow wild,[10] or in Africa. Four years should separate successive crops of eggplants to reduce pest pressure. BRINJAL :: MAJOR PESTS :: ASH WEEVILS. The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticaeKoch, has been controversial in its taxonomic placement. Schuhmacher and Peter Thonning named the eggplant as S. edule, which is also a junior synonym of sticky nightshade (S. sisymbriifolium). [40] Eggplants also feature in several Japanese expression and proverbs, such as "Don't feed autumn eggplant to your wife" (秋茄子は嫁に食わすな, akinasu ha yomi ni kuwasuna) and "Always listen to your parents" (親の意見と茄子の花は千に一つも無駄はない, oya no iken to nasubi no hana ha sen ni hitotsu mo muda ha nai, literally: "not even one in a thousand of a parents' opinion or an eggplant flower are in vain"). [37] Eggplant flesh is smooth. Spider mites when they reach The gnathosoma includes only the mouthparts. In eggplant and peppers, thrips transmit Tomato spotted wilt … Another version of the dish, begun-pora (eggplant charred or burnt), is very popular in Bangladesh and the east Indian states of Odisha and West Bengal where the pulp of the vegetable is mixed with raw chopped shallot, green chilies, salt, fresh coriander, and mustard oil. The result is berenjena of Almagro, Ciudad Real. [32] This variety was designed to give the plant resistance to lepidopteran insects such as the brinjal fruit and shoot borer (Leucinodes orbonalis) and fruit borer (Helicoverpa armigera). Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned cultivars include 'Harris Special Hibush', 'Burpee Hybrid', 'Bringal Bloom', 'Black Magic', 'Classic', 'Dusky', and 'Black Beauty'. Have originated in India and elsewhere in Asia the Sanskrit name are baingan and began lie in the,... Eggplant, Solanum melongeana L. Stock Photography - Fotosearch Enhanced dark purple population of Pusaupakar and Pant bahar were.... 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