Location Taken: US Our survey did not involve endangered or protected species, and the study did not involve sensitive content related to students. AAIDD helps Oregon in successfully completing a pilot project using SIS. The statement of the novel coronavirus as a pandemic was an invitation to battle for governments to make a dire and quick move. Guangzhou), and moreover, grade 9 students of one of the two schools were not invited to participate in the study due to school restriction. In sum, the study developed and evaluated an instrument for assessing extensive functions of social networking use intensity. It is relatively painless and will only take a few minutes. For example, while some studies suggested that social networking use was associated with negative outcomes such as internalizing problems, [7] loneliness, [8] depression, and low self-esteem among adolescents,[9,10] others reported that online social networking use reduced loneliness [11] and was negatively associated with subjective well-being. Moreover, Jenkins-Guarnieri, et al (2013) standardized a scale on online social media use that assesses the daily routines of users, combination of the social behavior, along with the emotional connection and importance of to this use, but this scale is not suitable to measure our construct. No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165695, http://www.cnnic.net.cn/hlwfzyj/hlwxzbg/hlwtjbg/201403/P020140305346585959798.pdf, http://www.cnnic.net.cn/hlwfzyj/hlwxzbg/sqbg/201302/P020130219611651054576.pdf, http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED537516.pdf, http://www.cnnic.cn/hlwfzyj/hlwxzbg/sqbg/201209/P020120903424883977032.pdf, http://datagzstatsgovcn/gzStat1/chaxun/njsjjsp. Detailed Description. In the present study, we have developed and validated the Social Networking Activity Intensity Scale (SNAIS) among junior middle school students in China. Participants who provided five or more “yes” answers were classified as an Internet addiction case. Response categories rated from 1 (not true) to 5 (extremely true), with a higher score indicating a higher level of addictive tendency to social networking. Yes First, the majority of them assessed online social networking use by simple or single-item measures (e.g. Globally, Internet-based technology has increased dramatically during the past decade. The standardized path estimates were above 0.48 (ranged from 0.48~0.76) (Table 2). Given the large scale of use of social media, there is a lack of research analysing the influence of multiple social media on brand equity (Schivinski and Dabrowski, 2015; Keller, 2016; Gürhan-Canli et al., 2016). The survey was conducted in October of 2013 in Guangzhou, the capital city of Guangdong province located in southern China. e0165695. In the present study, the word “Facebook” was replaced by “online social networking” for assessing extent of emotional connection. No incentive was given to the students. 1. The factor structure of SNAIS was also clearly established. the number of Facebook friends and the amount of time spent on Facebook in a typical day). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165695.t001. A total of 910 students who were social networking users were recruited from two junior middle schools in Guangzhou, and 114 students were retested after two weeks to examine the test-retest reliability. Secondly, participants were conveniently recruited from only two junior middle schools in one city (i.e. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. These suggested activities overlapped with the current 14 items (see Table 1). Furthermore, the specific entertainment functions included in the subscale (e.g. No, Is the Subject Area "Psychometrics" applicable to this article? In contrast, the SNAIS mainly focused on the online social networking activities instead of confining to only one specific platform (e.g. The population size of the city was about 12.8 million (2012). There were a total of 11-grade 7 classes, 11-grade 8 classes, and 5-grade 9 classes. No, Is the Subject Area "Adolescents" applicable to this article? For instance, a study from Yang et al [22] only covered four specific types of Facebook activities (electronic interactions, voyeurism, self-presentation, and gaming), while intensity of using two of these four types of activities was only assessed by a single item. here. The test-retest findings demonstrated that the SNAIS and its two subscales were stable over time. Over the last ten years, social media has become an integral facet of modern society. One of the key issues plaguing the existing studies on the use of the social networking sites (SNSs) is the lack of a uniform index for measuring the time spent on the sites. The 14 remaining items were written as questions:” How often have you performed the following online social networking activities in the last month?” Item response scale included six categories: 0 (never), 1 (few), 2 (occasional), 3 (sometimes), 4 (often) and 5 (always). The SFUI showed slightly stronger correlations with emotional connection (Pearson r = 0.49, p<0.001) and social networking addiction (Pearson r = 0.32, p<0.001), as compared to those of the EFUI (Pearson r = 0.40 and 0.25, respectively, p<0.001). Moreover, the results of the one-way ANOVA analysis showed that those who reported higher levels of duration of social networking use, number of days per week on average using social networking, amount of time spent on social networking in a typical day, and number of social networking friends, scored significantly higher in the SNAIS and its two subscales (all p<0.001, Table 6). Primary use / Purpose: The Facebook Intensity scale is used to measure Facebook usage beyond simple measures of frequency and duration, incorporating emotional connectedness to the site and its integration into individuals’ daily activities. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click [5], With the high penetration rate, it is important to examine reasons and health outcomes of online social networking among adolescents. On the days they reported using social networking, 49.7% spent on average more than 30 minutes per day for social networking. The technique of sampling uses quota sampling. Center for Health Education in Guangdong Province, Guangdong, China. Moreover, information on the study’s background and purpose, and confidentiality of the study was printed on the cover page of the questionnaire. The growing importance of social media and research interest in the field makes it imperative to consider the measures used to assess social networking site (SNS) use. It is warranted to develop a more comprehensive tool to assess intensity of online social networking use, considering various types of online social networking activities, functions and platforms. In the present study, the word “Facebook” was replaced by “online social networking” for … Definition of Social Media Intensity: The extent to which a person is actively engaged in social networking activities. The development of SNAIS therefore adds value to existing tools. New Media & Society. Pearson correlation coefficients between the items and the Overall scale, between the items and their corresponding subscales, and between the items and the other subscales of the SNAIS were calculated for the item analysis. The results being that the correlations between items and their hypothesized subscales were high but those between items and other subscales were weak indicated good content validity for social function and entertainment function assessment related to social networking use. No, Is the Subject Area "Schools" applicable to this article? [6,22,26,27] A pool of 38 items was extracted. Results of factor analysis yielded a two-factor solution (Social Function Use Intensity and Entertainment Function Use Intensity), which reflects two different but important behavioral patterns related to social networking activities among adolescents. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click means, standard deviation, and percentage) were presented when appropriate. We believe that the EFUI subscale is still useful, considering its acceptable psychometric properties. The Facebook Intensity Scale is a tool used to measure Facebook usage, frequency, and duration. It only uses one item to assess intensity of social networking use. Previous research has indicated that the effects of Internet use on psychosocial well-being was partially dependent on the nature of Internet use. In particular, image-based social networking sites such as Instagram have become increasingly popular among adolescents and young adults. Researchers have attempted to establish measures for the intensity of social media use in order to determine the levels of integration of SNS in users‘ lives. information-seeking, games, shopping) did not necessarily correlate strongly with each other. The top three purposes for using online social networking were to keep in contact with old friends (73.3%), entertainment (48.4%), and to make new friends (39.8%). School consent and permission for the in-school survey was approved by school principals before the survey. Firstly, the EFUI subscale gave acceptable but relatively low internal (α = 0.60) and test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.67), as compared to that of the SFUI subscale. All items were on a 5-point Likert-type scale anchored by “Strongly Disagree” and “Strongly Agree.” A sample item is “I’m proud to tell people I’m on … Table 1. Social media measurement guide - what, why, how - tools, free templates, download simulated social media reports, and more. The statistical significant level was 0.05. Four additional students answered an open-ended question on whether there were any other types of online activities unmentioned. Yes [6] However, the directions of the associations between intensity of social networking use and health outcomes are inconsistent. Intensity Scales Another type of scale focuses on the intensity of one’s social media use, such as how frequently they access social media, how long they spend on different platforms or their subjec-tive experiences of social media. Duration of social networking use, number of days per week on average using social networking, amount of time per day on average spent on social networking, and number of social networking friends were all positively correlated with the SFUI (Spearman r = 0.26 to 0.38, all p<0.001), EFUI (Spearman r = 0.27 to 0.30, all p<0.001), and SNAIS (Spearman r = 0.30 to 0.40, all p<0.001) (Table 5). Measurement Instrument Database for the Social Sciences, COM-B Hand Hygiene Behaviour Questionnaire, Egan and Carr Body-Centred Countertransference Scale, The negative and positive affect scale (NAPAS), Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors (QLACS), McGill Friendship Questionnaire- Friendship Functions. To assess the intensity of use in social networks, the Social Media Intensity Scale (SMIS) was used . [37] The results of the CFA confirmed the two-factor solution, showing acceptable goodness of fit to the data: χ2/df = 4.05 (χ2 = 307.68, df = 76, p<0.001), NNFI = 0.96, CFI = 0.96, RMSEA = 0.082 (90%CI: 0.073~0.092). The study appeared in Online Information Review. Includes free, interactive social media checklist.. + 1 646 712 9441 Client Login Contact Us Alerts / Search. Such an observation needs to be confirmed in the future research. Second, although some specific scales assessed intensity of online social networking use, [17–19] they tended to focus only on a single online social networking platform (e.g. The study and corresponding consent procedure was approved by the Survey and Behavioral Research Ethics Committee of the Chinese University of Hong Kong. Based on their comments, we removed the item response category of ‘occasional’, and thus a 5-point scale was used. Information on scoring and administering the FBI can be found at the link below. We examined its psychometric properties including internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity. Facebook). The EFA revealed two factors with eigenvalue larger than one. One of the most prominent measures being used in research is the Facebook Intensity Scale developed by Ellison Steinfield and Lampe (2007). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165695.t003. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165695.t005. This is largely inadequate as adolescents usually engage in multiple types of social networking activities [6,22–24] (e.g. As expected, the SNAIS and its subscale scores were correlated significantly with emotional connection to social networking, social networking addiction, Internet addiction, and characteristics related to social networking use. Be that as it may, many feel the reaction from certain nations was short of what was needed. The correlation coefficients between each item and the overall scale ranged from 0.43 to 0.72 (all p<0.001), while all correlation coefficients between the items and their corresponding subscale ranged from 0.64 to 0.77 (all p<0.001). Department of Clinical Research, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, China, Affiliations Online social networking, as a new phenomenon, allows users to create individual public profiles and share information about himself/herself with a large number of people. Of the 910 participants, 44.4%, 40.2% and 15.4% were 7th, 8th and 9th grade students, respectively and 47.4% came from the urban school. Yes Yes We found acceptable internal and test-retest reliability of SNAIS. Answers obtained included “chatting with strangers”, “online shopping”, and “reading/searching materials”. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Background Online social networking use has been integrated into adolescents’ daily life and the intensity of online social networking use may have important consequences on adolescents’ well-being. Jenkins-Guarnieri, Wright, and Johnson (2013) suggested another scale, the Social Media Use Integration Scale … Yes messaging with friends, posting comments, status updating). Copyright: © 2016 Li et al. We followed the study design of a number of published papers involving validation of scales among students [40–42], which have smaller sample sizes as compared to our study. About 60% of the participants were male (59.2%) and about two thirds (64.1%) of them possessed a smartphone (Table 1). Details. Connection strategies: Social capital implications of Facebook-enabled communication practices. Adding additional items to the EFUI subscale may improve its reliability. The Facebook Intensity Scale was developed to measure Facebook usage by incorporating both emotional connectedness to the site and its integration into one’s daily activities. Book; Search. [17] Third, those measures failed to capture the intensity of the full range of online activities. Is the Subject Area "Internet addiction" applicable to this article? Social Media Use Integration Scale (SMUIS) The SMUIS (Jenkins-Guarnieri et al., 2013) was constructed to measure engaged use of social media, or “the degree to which social media is integrated into the social behavior and daily routines of users, and the importance of and emotional connection to this use” (p. 39). The scale includes nine items corresponding to the nine diagnostic criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder according to the Appendix of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , 5th ed. The test-retest intra-class correlation coefficients were 0.87, 0.67, and 0.85 for two subscales and the Overall scale, respectively. The scale showed good internal reliability (Cronbach’s α = 0.73). Affiliations To gauge test-retest reliability, 114 students from the school in the urban area completed the same questionnaire after two weeks. Abbreviated description of the levels of Modified Mercalli intensity. Furthermore, relationships between the SNAIS/subscales and general characteristics related to social networking use were tested by both Spearman correlation coefficients and one-way ANOVA to establish external validity. The SNAIS and its two subscales exhibited acceptable reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.89, 0.90 and 0.60, and test-retest Intra-class Correlation Coefficient = 0.85, 0.87 and 0.67 for Overall scale, SFUI and EFUI subscale, respectively, p<0.001). The developed SNAIS is a comprehensive inventory with acceptable psychometric properties. Except for Item 8 and Item 14, item means were close to the middle of the range. The investigators constructed the scale specifically for use among emerging adults, though its items may also be applicable to other age groups. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between personal environment factors (self-esteem and subjective wellbeing) and behaviors (social network site [SNS] intensity and smartphone addiction) drawing upon the Social Cognitive Theory and utilizing structural … Thirdly, nature of online social networking use has been evolving rapidly, therefore new activities and functions of social networking might need to be considered in the future. Emotional connection to social networking was measured by six attitudinal items adapted from the Facebook Intensity Scale. No, Is the Subject Area "Emotions" applicable to this article? Search for: Tweets by @reyjunco. The percentage of respondents reporting maximum scores of the SFUI, EFUI, and SNAIS were 0.88%, 0.66% and 0.55%, respectively, while the percentage of participants reporting minimum scores of the SFUI, EFUI and SNAIS were 0.88%, 1.76% and 0.55%, respectively. Yes As it was developed to assess social networking use intensity, it does not include other constructs such as emotional attachment. Its application may catalyze the development of relevant research on the impact of social networking use among adolescents in China and beyond. The present study aims to develop the Social Networking Activity Intensity Scale (SNAIS) and validate it among junior middle school students in China. Therefore, raw data will be made available upon request and approval of the schools’ principals and the investigators. To gauge the impact of online social networking use among adolescents, it is warranted to develop validated instruments to assess online social networking use intensity (SNUI). Study Shows that Intensity of Facebook Use Can Be Predicted by Reward-related Activity in the Brain Neuroscientists at Freie Universität Berlin show a link between reward activity in the brain due to discovering one has a good reputation and social media use № 243/2013 from Aug 28, 2013. One widely used scale that To our knowledge, this is the first study to develop a tool that assesses online social networking use intensity (SNUI) among adolescents based on diverse social networking activities. We developed a new tool, the Social Networking Activity Intensity Scale (SNAIS), which can be used to assess SNUI among Chinese junior middle school students. Data obtained from 910 (89.7%) students, who were social networking users, were used for data analysis. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. The second 4-item factor explained an additional 8.7% of the total variance, and was named the “Entertainment Function Use Intensity (EFUI)” subscale. Products. Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Macau, Macao, China, Affiliation It is encouraging that the two identified factors of the SNAIS were positively correlated with traditional measures related to social networking characteristics (i.e. It is thought that the school principals were responsible for students during the school time, and their informed consent would be enough on behalf of junior middle school students for the school-based study. Image Dimensions: 1060 x 575. Recent . The present study aims to develop the Social Networking Activity Intensity Scale (SNAIS) and validate it among junior middle school students in China. here. The two subscales that emerged from the SNAIS have strong practical implications and can be used to understand various consequences of SNUI. Online social networking use has been integrated into adolescents’ daily life and the intensity of online social networking use may have important consequences on adolescents’ well-being. No, Is the Subject Area "Factor analysis" applicable to this article? Therefore, no significant ceiling or floor effects were observed for the SNAIS and its two subscales. Specifically, the SMIS adaptation to the Instagram social network was applied . Funding: This study was supported by the Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care research Postgraduate Students’ research Grants and CUHK research Postgraduate Student Grants for Overseas Academic Activities in the Chinese University of Hong Kong, and the study was also partially supported by National Science Foundation of China(No. In the first subsample, the factor structure of the SNAIS was extracted by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using principal components extraction method and varimax rotation methods. In contrast, the EFUI presented slightly stronger correlations with Internet addiction (Pearson r = 0.23, p<0.001) as compared to that of the SFUI (Pearson r = 0.18, p<0.001) (Table 4). Internet addiction was measured by the 8-item Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). Whitaker Institute for Innovation and Societal ChangeCairnes BuildingNational University of Ireland, GalwayGalwayIreland. [29,30] The scale has commonly been used in Chinese student populations and shown acceptable validity and reliability. Conceptually, FIS mainly evaluated the individual’s attitudes towards Facebook to reflect the degree of emotional connection to Facebook. Authors developing measuring minutes spent using the site and scales of social media use have focused mainly number of Facebook friends, although at lower on behavioral frequency of use (e.g., Ross et al., levels than correlations with the Facebook Use 2009), used inadequate measures such as single Intensity scale scores. New scale has been developed to measure the time use on the SNSs.The scale has good psychometric properties.The scale is very simple to use and administer. Such a limitation could be addressed in future revision of the scale. The first 10-item factor explained 42.2% of the total variance, and was named the “Social Function Use Intensity (SFUI)” subscale. The present study has several limitations. with three items, based on the intensity of interaction with the brand (how much content about the tourist destination did you see on social media? It also measures emotional connectedness to the social networking site. The Facebook Intensity Scale has seen prolific use since its development; however, it has been criticized by some scholars. All correlation coefficients between individual items and their respective subscale were higher than those between the same items and the other subscale (Table 3). Besides, Verbal informed consent was also obtained from participants before they filled out the questionnaires by the field-workers, and it is thought that their participation or not would partially reflect themselves and their parents’ (or caregivers’) decision. Facebook). PLoS ONE 11(10): Despite its prolific use, the scale has been criticized by, among In order to further refine the existing items and response scale, individual interviews were conducted among 20 students. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, Furthermore, 8.8% of the participants were classified as having Internet addiction (12.0% for males and 4.6% for females, χ2 = 13.84, df = 1; p<0.001) (Table 1). Tags: education, engagement, facebook, Facebook intensity scale, Facebook survey, higher education, methods, questions, Research, students, survey. Despite the ubiquity of social media use and growth of research in the area, few studies have examined the relationship between various types of social media use, sense of belonging and psychological wellbeing, while controlling potentially influential variables. In the present study, SNUI is defined as self-reported frequency of using multiple types of online social networking activities through multiple types of platforms in the last month. Recent . International Journal of Eating Disorders, 29, 37-44) is a child-appropriate, 3-factor scale designed to assess perceived media influence on body image. The following goodness of fit statistics and cutoff criteria were used to evaluate the factor structure model in the CFA: [34–36] χ2/df ratio<5.00, both Non-Normed Fit Index (NNFI) and Comparative Fit Index (CFI) >0.95, and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) <0.08. Please consider submitting any instruments that you have developed. Therefore, the psychometric properties of SNAIS should be evaluated in a large representative sample in the future, as Internet penetration and behavioral patterns of social networking use may vary across geographic regions in China. The present study developed a scale of online social media use that measures the integration of the social behavior and daily routines of users, along with … An anonymous structured questionnaire was self-administered by the participants in the absence of teachers and in classroom settings, supervised by a well-trained field-worker of our research team. Firstly, data was acquired by self-reporting collection method, reporting bias might exist although the study was highly anonymous. On social media, the intensity of a user’s preoccupation with a social networking site like Facebook is strongly correlated with trust in the social platform, according to North Carolina State University. In order to maximally ensure confidentiality and protect participants from personal information disclosure, the survey applied anonymous approach, and the data analyzed anonymously. To examine the factor structure of the SNAIS, the sample was randomly split into two subsamples of equal size. For instance, the Facebook Intensity Scale, [17] a commonly used instrument, [8,9,20] assesses the extent of one’s emotional connection to Facebook and integration between its use and one’s daily life. Yes The nature of voluntary participation was clearly mentioned in an announcement and students were informed that they had a right to terminate the study at any time. [38] A one-year longitudinal study revealed that Internet use for communication purposes was protective of depression, while the use for non-communicative purposes predicted depression and social anxiety. Several such scales exist but they have some serious limitations. Ellison, N. B., Steinfield, C., Lampe, C. (2007). Future revision of the scale may modify some items of EFUI to improve its internal reliability. Considering the dramatically increasing prevalence of social networking use among adolescents (90% prevalence in our sample), the development of the SNAIS would facilitate the progression of related studies investigating the effects of social networking use on psychosocial well-being among adolescents. Disagree ) to 5 ( strongly agree ) Thompson, 2001 ) of EFUI to improve its reliability Internet... As emotional attachment the survey was approved by school principals before the survey of Ireland, GalwayGalwayIreland 0.48! Whether they currently possess any social networking activities instead of confining to only specific... Value to existing tools by adolescents worldwide and specifically in the subscale ( e.g the.. Wu AMS, Tang J, et al measures on social networking use was conducted subscale may improve its.! 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